Here’s an important summary of how to interpret results from cancer trials that are increasingly hyped to the general public. You need to be a knowledgeable consumer of this information.
Over the past decade, one of the biggest developments in lung cancer, and in fact many kinds of cancer, has been the identification of important subgroups within the broad categories. Where 10-12 years ago we categorized patients as “advanced NSCLC” and didn’t get much more granular than that, we now routinely look for differences depending on different tumor histologies (adenocarcinoma, squamous, or other), the presence or absence of driver mutations, perhaps even smoking status. We expect to see differences, and in many cases identification of specific subgroups within a larger trial has led to major changes in treatment recommendations. At other times, however, you may see/read cancer news highlights that describe results as being significantly different for one group or another in a trial that was otherwise negative. What makes the results of one subgroup analysis credible and practice-changing, while oncologists view others with far more skepticism?