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GRACE Video

Immunotherapy Combinations

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Dr. Jack West, Swedish Cancer Institute, discusses current trials seeking to determine the efficacy of combining immunotherapy agents in lung cancer.

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The class of agents known as immune checkpoint inhibitors have really invigorated our study of lung cancer, and many other cancers over the last few years. Agents like Opdivo, also known as nivolumab, and Keytruda, known as pembrolizumab, are now commercially available, FDA approved as a second line therapy for patients who have progressed on first line standard chemotherapy. We are now actively asking the question of whether we might be able to move these immunotherapies into the first line setting and also asking whether we might do well by giving a combination of immune therapies, rather then just one treatment at a time.

So these agents, immune checkpoint inhibitors, are largely categorized into PD-1 or PD-L1 inhibitors, and those are just targeting two separate sides of an interaction between two receptors. The PD-L1 is on the tumor cells, PD-1 is on the immune T cells, and so blocking either side of this can lead to a beneficial effect because this effect leads to a braking mechanism on the immune system — you take away that braking system and you turn off the brakes and lead things to move forward, and that’s what we often see.

There are other agents that can also lead to braking mechanisms and that have been studied in other cancers. An agent such as Yervoy, which is known as ipilimumab is a CTLA-4 inhibitor and this is an agent that’s been approved in melanoma. In fact, the combination of Opdivo (nivolumab) and Yervoy (ipilimumab), as two different ways of blocking the immune system, have been shown to be beneficial as a combination in melanoma compared with either one on its own. Because of that, we’re looking at combinations of immunotherapies compared with single immunotherapy approaches, or standard chemotherapies.

One interesting study being done right now is called CheckMate 227 and it is looking at first line treatment of patients with advanced lung cancer that is either squamous or non-squamous histology. It does not require any level of PD-L1 expression on the tumors, the protein associated with tendency toward better efficacy of immunotherapies, partly with the thought that the combination of two immunotherapies may make even the cancers that don’t express PD-L1 respond well. This trial is looking at first line therapy with either standard chemotherapy of cisplatin or carboplatin with Alimta for non-squamous cancers, or Gemzar (gemcitabine) for squamous cancers, compared with either Opdivo alone or a combination of Opdivo and Yervoy — Opdivo being a PD-1 inhibitor, Yervoy being a CTLA-4 inhibitor — and asking the question of whether immunotherapy is as good, better, or worse than standard chemotherapy as a first line treatment, and whether the combination of two immunotherapies is better than first line therapy. 

I should mention that there are other trials looking at very similar versions of this question using different combinations of immunotherapies. There are many companies looking at several different immunotherapies in development and they are overall really very comparable and all quite exciting.

You can learn more about this specific trial from the link on the screen,

CheckMate 227 Clinical Trial

but I would encourage you, if you talk to your doctor and they recommend a trial with an immunotherapy in the first line setting, potentially comparing it to chemotherapy, to carefully consider it — it does not have to be this specific trial to be of interest.

We’re going to learn more about this in the coming years and we’re going to figure out the best way to integrate immunotherapies with our standard treatment approaches today.


GRACE Video

Immunotherapy as First-Line Treatment

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Dr. Jack West, Swedish Cancer Institute, raises the question of whether to use immune checkpoint inhibitors as first-line treatment of lung cancer, alone or in combination with chemotherapy.

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A class of agents known as immune checkpoint inhibitors has really incredibly invigorated the field of lung cancer and many other cancers over the last year or two. These agents are given intravenously and essentially take off a braking mechanism for the immune system and by doing that, can stimulate it to recognize and attack your own cancer. These agents, at least a couple of them, have been approved by the FDA as of now, in late 2015, and the question is whether they should be used earlier than the second line setting where they’ve already been approved.

Two agents, one known as Opdivo or nivolumab, and another known as Keytruda or pembrolizumab, are approved in patients who have already demonstrated progression after receiving a first line chemotherapy. So the question is: should these treatments be given earlier in therapy? There are two leading considerations in how we might do this. One is that we might give an immunotherapy in combination with standard chemotherapy. There are other ways to do this that might give the immunotherapy instead of standard chemotherapy. There are studies looking at various combinations being done with any of the many immune checkpoint inhibitors that are in development right now.

An interesting trial that is being done now is with pembrolizumab, or Keytruda — this is the KEYNOTE-189 trial that is looking at whether the addition of Keytruda to standard chemotherapy improves outcomes for patients when they get it first line. Specifically this trial is for patients with a non-squamous cancer and these patients can have any level of PD-L1 expression, the protein that tends to be associated with better activity of the immune checkpoint inhibitors — there’s no restriction on PD-L1 expression and patients just have to have not received prior therapy for advanced lung cancer. These patients are then randomized to receive the two drug chemotherapy combination of cisplatin or carboplatin with Alimta, or that same chemotherapy combination with Keytruda (pembrolizumab). That study is being done now and we hope to learn more about it in the next year or two, to learn whether it is beneficial to give these immunotherapy agents in combination with chemotherapy, compared to giving them sequentially.

Another very similar study, though looking at squamous lung cancer, is called EMPOWER 131 — this is with an immune checkpoint inhibitor known as atezolizumab. This agent is being looked at in combination with either carboplatin and Taxol, or carboplatin and Abraxane, a very similar agent. There are two arms of this study where a patient gets a combination of chemotherapy and the immune therapy, and the third arm is just carboplatin and Abraxane alone. We should learn more about the potential benefits of combining immune checkpoint inhibitors with chemotherapy in the first line setting from this, looking at both patients with squamous and non-squamous histology in different trials.


GRACE Video

Maintenance Therapy for Advanced NSCLC

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Dr. Jack West, Swedish Cancer Institute, defines maintenance therapy in advanced NSCLC and discusses maintenance treatment strategies.

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For patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer, our typical approach, if we have someone who does not have a driver mutation that we typically treat with a pill-based targeted therapy, is to give chemotherapy. That chemotherapy is typically given in a cycle of three weeks or sometimes a four week period of time where the blood counts go down and then recover. That treatment is typically given once every three weeks, sometimes once or twice on a weekly basis in that three week interval, but we typically give that therapy for about four to six cycles of therapy — that’s about three to five months of treatment. By that time, by four to six cycles in, the two drug combination that includes a drug called platinum is usually creating some cumulative side effects: fatigue, low blood counts, and other complicating issues that make it increasingly challenging to administer more of the same potentially intensive therapy, and by four to six cycles you really tend to reach a point of diminishing returns.

At that point we often favor a maintenance therapy approach. That is, dropping the carboplatin or stopping all of the agents that have been given previously and either continuing one or more of the agents from the first line setting, or using what’s called switch maintenance to give a completely different treatment. These maintenance therapies are designed to do what their name suggests — to maintain a response after we’ve seen the most shrinkage that we’re likely to get from the more intensive first line therapy.

When we do a continuous maintenance approach, it’s typically taking a drug like cisplatin or carboplatin in combination with one or two partner drugs, usually a second chemotherapy agent and sometimes Avastin which blocks a tumor’s blood supply, and then after four to six cycles we drop the platinum and we will typically continue a drug like Alimta if that’s been given in the first line setting, and if a drug like Avastin has also been given we might continue that and give Alimta and Avastin together until the cancer progresses.

If a combination like carboplatin and Taxol were given with Avastin, the maintenance therapy is often just the Avastin because Taxol tends to have some cumulative neuropathy issues — numbness and tingling that can lead to a real limitation in how much of that therapy you can give. We might also consider a switch maintenance approach — instead of continuing some of the agents, come in with Alimta as a single agent if a patient has non-squamous histology. Another agent that is approved as a switch maintenance therapy is Tarceva (erlotinib) — this doesn’t tend to be as favored as a switch maintenance because the efficacy of Tarceva in patients who don’t have an EGFR mutation tends to be on the lower side.

What do these maintenance therapies have in common? Well they’re all agents that can be given on a longitudinal basis without a lot of cumulative side effects and they tend to be the agents that have good activity in patients who have already been on prior therapy. So any of these is a reasonable choice, the most common being a continuation maintenance of dropping the platinum and continuing one or two partner drugs that were given with it, or sometimes switching to an agent like Alimta (pemetrexed) or Tarceva (erlotinib). It’s also reasonable to not pursue maintenance therapy if a patient has cumulative side effects and really needs a break from therapy. That is certainly something to discuss with the patient; it’s not as if maintenance therapy is a mandate for all patients, but it is something that is a strong consideration if a patient is motivated and can continue to tolerate ongoing therapy after four to six cycles.


GRACE Video

Histology-Specific Regimens – Squamous

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GCVL_LU-F06_Histology_Specific_Regimens_Squamous

 

Dr. Jack West, Swedish Cancer Institute, reviews the choices for a first-line chemotherapy regimen based on a squamous histology.

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There are a few common subtypes of non-small cell lung cancer. These are broken down by histology — the appearance of it under the microscope. The most common is called adenocarcinoma; the second most common is known as squamous histology and this accounts for somewhere in the range of 20% to 25% of the non-small cell lung cancers out there.

There are many standard chemotherapy regimens that are commonly used for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer, and overall they tend to produce very comparable results, making it very reasonable to choose one or another without a lot of difference, but there are certain regimens that might be more or less favored. For instance, in the setting of squamous lung cancer, there are a couple that we really choose to avoid in these patients because they are either unsafe or less effective.

So in terms of safety, one of the agents that we really prefer to not give is called Avastin and it is not a standard chemotherapy, but sometimes added to chemotherapy as a third agent that blocks the tumor blood supply. This can be helpful in some patients with non-squamous histology, but it has led to an unacceptably high risk of bleeding complications in patients with squamous histology. Because of that we do not give it in that setting — it is not considered safe.

Another agent that is really not favored is known as Alimta or pemetrexed, and that is because it does not seem to have good efficacy — it doesn’t do better than giving a placebo drug in that setting.

There are certainly other good choices. A cisplatin or carboplatin drug combined with an agent like Taxol, also known as paclitaxel, is a fine choice. There is also a related drug called Abraxane, which is also known as albumin-bound paclitaxel or NAB paclitaxel. This agent was added to carboplatin and compared to carboplatin and Taxol in a large group of patients with advanced lung cancer of a few different types, and the patients with squamous histology had a higher rate of tumor shrinkage if they received the carboplatin and Abraxane combination, than carboplatin and Taxol. It’s not an overwhelming difference and there wasn’t a clear difference in survival, but because of this some people might favor carboplatin and Abraxane.

Another choice that might be considered and favored in patients with squamous lung cancer is a platinum with Gemzar, also known as gemcitabine, and that’s because there was a randomized trial that gave cisplatin and Gemzar, or cisplatin and Alimta to patients with different types of lung cancer, and that study showed that the patients who got cisplatin and Gemzar did better overall than the patients who got cisplatin and Alimta. That might have been in large part because Alimta is not very effective in squamous lung cancer, but in fact we do tend to favor giving Gemzar as a leading partner with a platinum drug, if not a taxane. The taxane drugs: Taxol, Abraxane, or Taxotere, all seem to have efficacy that is every bit as good in the patients who have a squamous or non-squamous lung cancer.

So there are certainly several options, but some may be particularly better for patients with squamous histology.


GRACE Video

Histology-Specific Regimens – Adenocarcinoma

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GCVL_LU-F05_Histology_Specific_Regimens_Adenocarcinoma

 

Dr. Jack West, Swedish Cancer Institute, addresses the issue of choosing a first-line chemotherapy regimen based on an adenocarcinoma histology.

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There are several different subtypes of non-small cell lung cancer and these are broken down by what is called histology — how they appear under the microscope. The most common subtype of non-small cell lung cancer is known as adenocarcinoma and there may be specific recommendations about what chemotherapy to recommend for patients with an adenocarcinoma.

In general, we favor a two-drug so-called platinum-based doublet for the vast majority of patients with an advanced or stage IV lung cancer, but the exact chemotherapy combination we might favor can differ depending on whether a patient has one subtype, one histology, or another. So for patients with a lung adenocarcinoma it’s fair to say that any of the chemotherapy doublets widely used is an acceptable choice — cisplatin or carboplatin with a taxane such as Taxol, also known as paclitaxel, or docetaxel which is also known as Taxotere, you could consider Gemzar, also known as gemcitabine, but one that is often favored is called Alimta, or pemetrexed.

Why is that? Well, there was a study that was published years ago that looked at the combination of cisplatin and gemcitabine, or Gemzar, versus cisplatin and Alimta, and there were no major differences between the large groups of patients overall, but when they looked specifically at the subgroups based on whether they had a squamous or a non-squamous cancer, the patients who had a squamous cancer did better with cisplatin and gemcitabine, and the opposite was true for the patients with a non-squamous cancer — those patients did particularly well with cisplatin and Alimta. Since then there have been several other studies that have shown particularly favorable results with Alimta in patients with adenocarcinoma histology.

It’s fair to say that there are not great differences, but the tendency toward a more favorable efficacy in patients with adenocarcinoma and the good tolerability, lead many lung cancer specialists and general oncologists alike, to favor a combination of a platinum drug with Alimta for patients with a non-squamous, and especially, an adenocarcinoma histology.


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